คาสิโนไทย The Distinction Among Brain, Mind and Soul Topics

 

In the article, "Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry (คาสิโนไทยVentriglio and Bhugra, 2015), the President of World Psychiatric Association (Dinesh Bhugra) and his colleague stated that

"René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century..... We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other."

To my knowledge, Descartes never said that mind and body could not influence each other. In fact, Descartes explicitly postulated that the mind and the body could interact through the pineal gland - a small endocrine gland near the center of the brain. In his hypothesis, the mind may cause movement of the pineal gland, which in turn changes the tension of muscles, thereby resulting in bodily movement (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). We now know that the pineal gland hypothesis is wrong, but the mind-body dualism is still being debated.

This website will present evidence for the mind-body dualism, namely, the mind and the body are composed of different substances: the body is made up of matter (molecules, atoms, electrons, etc.) whereas the mind consists of immaterial substances which will be identified as the electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) waves. The EM and GR waves that constitute the mind are produced by neural activities in the brain (see below). The EM waves may influence the brain through คาสิโนไทยwireless communication, but the GR waves cannot affect brain activities due to their extremely weak interaction with matter. However, the GR waves may bind together to form a gravitational geon which could be the origin of consciousness (see The Hard Problem of Consciousness).

Neuronal firing, or the generation of nerve impulses, arises from the movement of ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, etc.) along ion channels. According to physical laws, the accelerated motion of any charge will radiate electromagnetic (EM) waves and the accelerated motion of any mass will radiate gravitational (GR) waves. For instance, the EM waves transmitted from a radio or television station are radiated by the accelerated motion of electrons along a metal antenna (Figure 1). Likewise, the accelerated motion of ions as they pass through ion channels should radiate EM waves. In addition, ions are much heavier than electrons, they could also radiate significant GR waves.

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Figure 1. The electromagnetic waves radiated from a transmitting antenna, in which the electrons move back and forth driven by the alternating voltage. Ion channels may act as transmitting antennas where ionic fluxes are driven by the electrochemical gradient across a nerve membrane. [Source: Wikipedia]

In many philosopher's works, the two words, mind and soul, are often used interchangeably. Their differences are discussed briefly in the following two articles.

Further details are presented in these books:

 

Author: Frank Lee
Last updated: January 5, 2018