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Figure 5. Open vs. closed string. [Source: Wikipedia]
An elementary particle is the particle that does not contain smaller particles. An atom was once thought to be the most basic building block of matter, but it actually contains electrons and a nucleus. The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons which are not elementary particles either, because they are made up of quarks. The electron and quarks are elementary particles. In our 3D world, there are about 20 different elementary particles, including photon (the particle name for an electromagnetic wave) and graviton (the particle name for a gravitational wave).
According to the String Theory, all elementary particles arise from different vibrations of a single string, analogous to various music notes resulting from different vibrations of a guitar string. The string that produces all kinds of elementary particles is extremely short, only about 10-33 centimeter. Its vibrations should obey the fundamental equations in the String Theory. In order to match experimentally observed particle properties, the particle string must vibrate in an 11-dimension universe (one dimension of time plus ten dimensions of space), suggesting that the whole universe may have ten dimensions (10D) of space, instead of 3D that we used to think. This revolutionary discovery supports the view that God could live in a higher dimensional space, as discussed in the previous chapter.
The String Theory has an even bigger discovery that leads to the conclusion: the soul must be a gravitational geon. To appreciate this conclusion, we need to understand the difference between an open string and a closed string.
In the String Theory, a particle string can be either open (with two endpoints) or closed (no endpoints) (Figure 5). It has been found that photon is an open string. This finding explains why we cannot see God (คาสิโนไทย). More importantly, graviton is the only particle known to be a closed string, which leads to the conclusion that the soul must be a gravitational geon (Chapter 9).